in Africa
in Wales
in History
the Beans
the Grind


Extracting the Perfect Espresso
“Aroma of anticipation, sensuous bitter-sweet crema,
lingering dark fulfillment”

Espresso is the base ingredient of all specialty coffee beverages
It is difficult to prepare and care must be taken in the Espresso preparation
Education and Practice are fundamental to the Barista

The Tools for extracting an Espresso

The Espresso Coffee Machine

The Burr Coffee Bean Grinder

 The Tamper

Porta Filter
Filter Basket

The Filter Basket

The Extraction

For each “Single Shot” of Espresso the Espresso Machine
will deliver 25mL (1ozs) of water at 9 to 10 bar pressure
at a temperature of 88° to 95°C in 18 to 24 seconds (Extraction Time)
A Single Shot (Dose) has around 7 grams of Coffee
a Double between 14 to 17 grams

The Grinder

Care must be taken when selecting the Grind setting
The humidity, room 
temperature and age of the beans
must be carefully evaluated.
Each cup must be monitored and the Grind setting adjusted accordingly.


To extract all the flavours from the Coffee Grind, correct Tamping is essential.
The dose must be evenly filled and level in the Filter Basket.
Tamp with enough pressure to settle the grind, around 5 pounds.
Then gently tap the side of the Porta Filter release any grinds clinging to the side.
A final 'hard' Tamping of around 30 pounds will combine the dose.

Classic 'Italian' Espresso Brewing is defined by the
'Four Ms'

is the correct grinding of the Coffee Bean
is the Blend of Coffee Beans
is the Espresso Machine settings
is the skilled hand of the Coffee Barista 
Only when each of the' Four Ms' are achieved
Is the perfect Espresso is created

Creating an Elegant Café Latte

“Embracing the warm soothing comfort of
kindred nostalgia”

Café Latte combines the Full Flavour of Espresso with silky smooth Foamed Milk

Steaming Jug  Cold Fresh Milk  Milk Thermometer 

Milk Sugars, Fats and Proteins

The slightly sweet and pleasant taste we find in milk is primarily due to the relationship of lactose and chloride contents. Lactose is the milk sugar. 
Increasing the temperature of the milk has the effect of increasing the solubility of the lactose and in turn increasing its perceived sweetness.
Fat in milk can range from 0% in non-fat to approximately 4% in whole milk. 
Fat also gives body to the flavour and texture of steamed milk. 
Increases in fat content also cause a decrease in foam volume.
Therefore skim milk offers the greatest volume of foam and the most stable foam. But … Full fat milk is harder to work but will make for a tastier drink.
Proteins are responsible for our milk being able to be foamed.
When you are steaming milk you are incorporating air into the milk.
There are two different types of proteins in milk;
Whey proteins, 20% have superior foam stabilizing properties for more rigid film.
Caseins, 80%, impart good surface-active properties.
Both proteins are stable up to approximately 140°F (55°C)
How to Texture Milk 
Pour sufficient cold fresh milk into the stainless steel Steaming Jug, (texturing milk will almost double its volume.
Place the purged Steaming Wand deep into the milk
turn on the steam and very gently raise the wand to keep it just below the surface
keeping it to the side of the Jug (Surfing the Foam).
This will force air into the milk to create a density of small bubbles.
At a comfortable 25°C, lower the Wand into the milk to make the milk swirl in the Jug.
At around 60°C, stop the steam, the milk should now be Textured velvety smooth allowing it to blend perfectly with the Espresso.
Purge and wipe the Wand. Now extract the Espresso.
Tap and swirl the Milk to form a tight glossy surface.
Pour the Textured Milk steadily into and onto the Shot of Espresso.